Preclinical data has demonstrated that MAPS technology enables the creation of a defined-structure, highly reproducible macromolecular complex with the desired ratio of antigen components – polysaccharides and proteins – inducing a robust, multipronged immune response, including antibody, Th1, and Th17 responses.
- Zhang F, Lu YJ, & Malley R (2013) Multiple antigen-presenting system (MAPS) to induce comprehensive B- and T-cell immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(33):13564-13569.
- van Sorge NM, Cole JN, Kuipers K, Anna Henningham A, Ramy K. Aziz RK, Kasirer-Friede A, Lin L, Berends ETM, Davies MR, Dougan G, Zhang F, Dahesh S, Shaw L, Gin J, Cunningham M, Merriman JA, Hütter J, Lepenies B, Rooijakkers SHM, Malley R, Walker MJ, Shattil SJ, Schlievert PM, Choudhury B, Nizet V. The Classical Lancefield Antigen of Group A Streptococcus is a Virulence Determinant with Implications for Vaccine Design. (2014) Cell Host & Microbe (15) 729-740